Time Makes People Happier Than Money

Valuing your time more than the pursuit of money is linked to greater happiness, according to new research published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.

In six studies with more than 4,600 participants, researchers found an almost even split between people who tended to value their time or money, and that choice was a fairly consistent trait both for daily interactions and major life events.

“It appears that people have a stable preference for valuing their time over making more money, and prioritizing time is associated with greater happiness,” said lead researcher Ashley Whillans, a doctoral student in social psychology at the University of British Columbia. The findings were published online in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science.

The researchers found an almost even split with slightly more than half of the participants stating they prioritized their time more than money. Older people also were more likely to say they valued their time compared to younger people.

“As people age, they often want to spend time in more meaningful ways than just making money,” Whillans said.

The researchers conducted separate surveys with a nationally representative sample of Americans, students at the University of British Columbia, and adult visitors of a science museum in Vancouver. Some of the studies used real-world examples, such as asking a participant whether he would prefer a more expensive apartment with a short commute or a less expensive apartment with a long commute. A participant also could choose between a graduate program that would lead to a job with long hours and a higher starting salary or a program that would result in a job with a lower salary but fewer hours.

A participant’s gender or income didn’t affect whether they were more likely to value time or money, although the study didn’t include participants living at the poverty level who may have to prioritize money to survive.

If people want to focus more on their time and less on money in their lives, they could take some actions to help shift their perspective, such as working slightly fewer hours, paying someone to do disliked chores like cleaning the house, or volunteering with a charity. While some options might be available only for people with disposable income, even small changes could make a big difference, Whillans said.

“Having more free time is likely more important for happiness than having more money,” she said. “Even giving up a few hours of a paycheck to volunteer at a food bank may have more bang for your buck in making you feel happier.”

Source:

1.Whillans, A., Weidman, A., and Dunn, E. Valuing Time Over Money Is Associated with Greater Happiness. Social Psychological and Personality Science, January 2016 DOI: 10.1177/1948550615623842

Abstract:

How do the trade-offs that we make about two of our most valuable resources?time and money?shape happiness? While past research has documented the immediate consequences of thinking about time and money, research has not yet examined whether people?s general orientations to prioritize time over money are associated with greater happiness. In the current research, we develop the Resource Orientation Measure (ROM) to assess people?s stable preferences to prioritize time over money. Next, using data from students, adults recruited from the community, and a representative sample of employed Americans, we show that the ROM is associated with greater well-being. These findings could not be explained by materialism, material striving, current feelings of time or material affluence, or demographic characteristics such as income or marital status. Across six studies (N = 4,690), we provide the first empirical evidence that prioritizing time over money is a stable preference related to greater subjective well-being.

New Type of Sound Waves Improve Stem Cell Therapy

Acoustics experts have created a new class of sound wave — the first in more than half a century in a breakthrough they hope could lead to a revolution in stem cell therapy.

The team at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, combined two different types of acoustic sound waves called bulk waves and surface waves to create a new hybrid: “surface reflected bulk waves.”

The first new class of sound wave discovered in decades, the powerful waves are gentle enough to use in biomedical devices to manipulate highly fragile stem cells without causing damage or affecting their integrity, opening new possibilities in stem cell treatment.

Dr Amgad Rezk, from RMIT’s Micro/Nano Research Laboratory, said the team was already using the discovery to dramatically improve the efficiency of an innovative new “nebuliser” that could deliver vaccines and other drugs directly to the lung.

“We have used the new sound waves to slash the time required for inhaling vaccines through the nebuliser device, from 30 minutes to as little as 30 seconds,” Rezk said.

“But our work also opens up the possibility of using stem cells more efficiently for treating lung disease, enabling us to nebulise stem cells straight into a specific site within the lung to repair damaged tissue.

“This is a real game changer for stem cell treatment in the lungs.”

The researchers are using the “surface reflected bulk waves” in a breakthrough device, dubbed HYDRA, which converts electricity passing through a piezoelectric chip into mechanical vibration, or sound waves, which in turn break liquid into a spray.

“It’s basically ‘yelling’ at the liquid so it vibrates, breaking it down into vapour,” Rezk said.

Bulk sound waves operate similar to a carpet being held at one end and shaken, resulting in the whole substrate vibrating as one entity. Surface sound waves on the other hand operate more like ocean waves rolling above a swimmer’s head.

“The combination of surface and bulk wave means they work in harmony and produce a much more powerful wave,” said Rezk, who co-authored the study with PhD researcher James Tan.

“As a result, instead of administering or nebulising medicine at around 0.2ml per minute, we did up to 5ml per minute. That’s a huge difference.”

The breakthrough HYDRA device is improving the effectiveness of a revolutionary new type of nebuliser developed at RMIT called Respite. Cheap, lightweight and portable, the advanced Respite nebuliser can deliver everything from precise drug doses to patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, to insulin for diabetes patients, and needle-free vaccinations to infants.

Group of 38 Year Olds Show Biological Age as High as 60

In a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the scientists tracked 1,000 people born in 1972-73 in the coastal city of Dunedin in New Zealand and calculated their “biological age” after their 38th birthdays based on a wide range of biomarkers. The measurements included:

?Kidneys, liver, lungs, metabolic and immune systems
?HDL cholesterol, cardiorespiratory fitness, lung function
?Length of the telomeres (protective caps at the end of chromosomes that have been found to shorten with age)
?Dental health like the condition of the gums
?Condition of the tiny blood vessels at the back of the eyes, (which are a proxy for the brain’s blood vessels)
?Cognitive function

They looked at the volunteers at age 26, 32 and 38 and found that while most of them aged at a normal pace — one year’s worth of physiological changes for each chronological year — some of them aged surprisingly slower or faster.

In fact, researchers calculated, the “biological ages” of the 38-year-olds ranged from 30 to nearly 60 years. From the report:

The fastest-aging study participants experienced two to three years of changes with the passage of a single calendar year. They tended to have worse balance and motor coordination and were physically weaker. Belsky and his colleagues said that these volunteers reported having more trouble with basic tasks like climbing stairs or carrying groceries.

Moreover, those who were aging fast also showed evidence of cognitive decline. Their IQ scores, which according to previous studies have been shown to remain relatively constant throughout a person’s life, were lower by age 38.

One particularly interesting finding of the study was that the people who were physiologically older looked older, at least according to Duke undergraduates who were asked to guess their ages from their pictures.

The study, which was funded in part by the National Institute on Aging, is significant because it looked at young adults. Most previous aging research is focused on the second half of the average person’s life, in the 50s, 60s, and 70s.

“Our findings indicate that aging processes can be quantified in people still young enough for prevention of age-related disease, opening a new door for antiaging therapies,” the researchers wrote. “The science of healthspan extension may be focused on the wrong end of the lifespan; rather than only studying old humans, geroscience should also study the young.”

Belsky said that in the future a person’s biological age could serve as a simple measure of a person’s health that may help patients better understand the battery of numbers they get from their doctors today.

“A single number would be much easier to process,” Belsky said.

He said the measurement could also help with assessing the health of a community. Right now we look at things like disease end points, new diagnoses, hospitalizations and death, but all are imperfect because they don’t give us a picture of the health of a whole person.

Cord Blood Stem Cells Used Successfully to Treat 4 Year Old

When Steve and Rosa Barney?s daughter Isabella, now 4, was born, the couple decided to take a preventative medical measure that felt both mysterious and hopeful: They banked their baby girl?s cord blood with a private company, thinking that its rich stem cells could be there to help treat an unforeseeable issue, such as childhood leukemia. They also considered that it might someday benefit their older son, who suffers from a motor speech disorder called childhood apraxia.

They wound up using it sooner than they thought, and in a way that totally amazed them ? for Isabella?s own apraxia, discovered at 18 months and largely turned around when she was 3, after a 15-minute, cutting-edge procedure, in which a their daughter had an infusion of her own stored cord blood. ?It was like her being born again,? says Steve, of Queens, New York, who notes that he and his wife were stunned by the results.

Cord blood banking is where the stem cells are removed from an newborn?s umbilical cord once it?s been clamped and cut. Those cells are then sent to a lab and frozen as a type of insurance, in case one day, if needed, they can be thawed and used to treat certain health conditions and diseases.

?We got on the ball a bit quicker with her,? Steve explains, having her tested and utilizing early intervention services when she was very young. But she went to preschool at 2 1/2 with ?very limited vocabulary,? he says, and, after preschool, had only about 15 words that could be understood (typically, a 3-year-old would have about 500 words at his or her disposal). Her parents dove into research about using stored cord-blood for treating apraxia, and found a cutting-edge program at Duke University, where stem-cell pioneer Dr. Joanne Kurtzberg had already overseen a handful of similar, successful treatments ? including for a 5-year-old with cerebral palsy, Grace Rosewood, who experienced vast improvements after receiving infusions of her stored cord blood as part of a clinical trial.

?We were still hesitant,? Steve recalls about taking the chance. ?One thing they don?t tell you with banking is that it?s basically a one-time use.? Still, after speaking with another parent about having success with the treatment at Duke, he says, ?it was a no-brainer for me.?

Then came the elaborate process of looking into whether or not Isabella was a good candidate. ?We look at the cord blood, as some banks get a higher quality than others, and we need make sure we have enough cells, with a minimum amount of information, plus good sterility,? says Kurtzberg ? who also runs a public cord-blood bank and Carolina Cord Blood Bank, accepting donations from moms who deliver healthy babies but who have no risks, and is the president of the new Cord Blood Association, created to harmonize education, regulation, and advocacy around the issue of cord-blood banking.

Regarding the decision of whether to bank a baby?s cord-blood privately or publicly, Kurtzberg explains, ?A mom has to know she?s really giving up her rights to the cord blood with a public donation. If it happens to be there, she can have it. There?s no risk, no cost, and is the truly altruistic choice.? Publicly donated cord blood is available to anyone, and doesn?t necessarily have to be a full match; it?s particularly useful for both children and adults who have conditions that cannot be treated with one?s own cord blood ? including some cancers, sickle cell, and metabolic disease.

Isabella received her treatment after receiving a full workup, including tests to make sure there was no genetic disease present. She checked out, and the cord blood was shipped to Duke.

The family was there for three days with their daughter, but the whole infusion process, given through an IV, took just 10 to 15 minutes, Steve says. As Kurtzberg explains, ?The child gets an IV ? sometimes the veins in the feet are easiest to access ? and they get Benadryl and a steroid to prevent reactions.? Then they infuse the cells, which have been washed in a lab, through a drip, similar to how a blood transfusion works. Duke typically does about three to four infusions a week, though that number will soon go up to 10, she says.

?After they put a needle in her foot, she slept for over an hour, and woke up smelling like a can of creamed corn, from the chemicals,? Steve recalls. ?It was the most beautiful smell you could smell.? Isabella?s speech abilities were immediately improved, he adds ? ?like night and day.? She?s now up to about 60 words, he adds, and though is still relying on extra speech-therapy services, ?the biggest thing is that she picks up new words without telling us, and that catches us by surprise all the time.?

The cost of the procedure, Kurtzberg says, averages $7,500 to $10,000, and is only sometimes covered by insurance. In the Barneys? case, the family?s insurance covered about 40 percent. ?It was very worth it,? Steve says ? especially the cord blood banking part. ?I suggest it to everybody, because you just never know.?

Eating Trans Fats Worsens Memory

High consumption of trans fats such as found in foods containing hydrogenated oils is linked to worse memory according to a study among working-age men, according to research presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2014.

In a recent study of approximately 1,000 healthy men, those who consumed the most trans fats showed notably worse performance on a word memory test. The strength of the association remained even after taking into consideration things like age, education, ethnicity and depression.

“Trans fats were most strongly linked to worse memory, in young and middle-aged men, during their working and career-building years,” said Beatrice A. Golomb, M.D., Ph.D., lead author and professor of medicine at the University of California-San Diego. “From a health standpoint, trans fat consumption has been linked to higher body weight, more aggression and other health problems. As I tell patients, while trans fats increase the shelf life of foods, they reduce the shelf life of people.”

Golomb and her coauthor studied adults including men age 20 or older and postmenopausal women. Participants completed a dietary questionnaire, from which the researchers estimated participants’ trans fat consumption. To assess memory, researchers presented participants with a series of 104 cards showing words. Participants had to state whether each word was new or a word duplicated from a prior card.

?Among men under age 45, those who ate more trans fats showed notably worse performance on the word memory test. The strength of the association remained even after taking into consideration things like age, education, ethnicity and mood.

?Each additional gram a day of trans fats consumed was associated with an estimated 0.76 fewer words correctly recalled.

?For those eating the highest amounts of trans fats, this translated to an estimated 11 fewer words (a more than 10 percent reduction in words remembered), compared to adults who ate the least trans fat. (The average number of words correctly recalled was 86.)

“Foods have different effects on oxidative stress and cell energy,” Golomb said. In a previous study, we found chocolate, which is rich in antioxidants and positively impacts cell energy, is linked to better word memory in young to middle-aged adults. In this study, we looked at whether trans fats, which are prooxidant and linked adversely to cell energy, might show the opposite effect. And they did.”

Industrial trans fats are artificially produced to turn liquid oils into solids at room temperature and extend food shelf life. They can be found in margarines, fast foods, baked goods, snack foods, frozen pizza, coffee creamers and some refrigerated doughs. The Food and Drug Administration is taking further steps to reduce the amount of artificial trans fats in the U.S. food supply.

Analyses in younger women are needed to determine whether effects extend to this group, Golomb said.

Moderate Coffee Drinking Lowers Risk of Overall Mortality

In a 10-year U.S. study, people who drank coffee regularly were less likely to die of many causes, including heart disease and diabetes, than those who didn’t drink coffee at all.

The more coffee study participants consumed, the lower their risk of dying, and decaf drinkers showed a similar pattern.

“Coffee contains numerous biologically active compounds, including phenolic acids, potassium, and caffeine,” said lead author Dr. Erikka Loftfield of the National Cancer Institute in Rockville, Maryland.

Many studies have found that coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of overall and heart-related mortality, Loftfield told Reuters Health by email.

The researchers used data from a previous study on 90,317 adults without cancer or history of cardiovascular disease who were followed from 1998 through 2009. They had reported their coffee intake, along with other dietary and health details, at the start of the study.

By 2009, about 8,700 people had died. After accounting for other factors like smoking, the researchers found that coffee drinkers were less likely to have died during the study than nondrinkers.

The risk of death was lowest for those who drank four to five cups of coffee per day. A similar association was seen among drinkers of decaffeinated coffee as well, according to the results in American Journal of Epidemiology.

Coffee drinkers had a reduced risk of death from heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza and suicide, but not cancer, the researchers found.

“Although coffee drinking has also been inversely associated with incidence of certain cancers, like liver, in epidemiological studies, we did not observe an association between coffee and overall cancer mortality,” Loftfield said. “This may be because coffee reduces mortality risk for some cancers but not others.”

People who consumed two to three cups of coffee per day had approximately an 18 percent lower risk death during follow-up compared to those who reported drinking no coffee, she said. Drinking up to five cups per day, or 400 milligrams of caffeine per day, is not associated with any long-term health risks, Loftfield added.

Moderate caffeine intake, up to 200 milligrams per day, is even safe for pregnant women, according to a statement by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

“There is an accumulating number of studies of very high quality that show that people who drink more coffee tend to have better health outcomes,” said Dr. Marc J. Gunter of Imperial College London, who was not part of the new study.

“Coffee drinking is correlated with other health behaviors,” and those who drink it regularly may have other healthy habits, like exercising and keeping to a healthier diet, though the researchers tried to account for those other factors, Gunter told Reuters Health.

The study doesn’t prove that coffee extends life.

“You could argue that people who are already sick might not be drinking as much coffee,” Gunter said.

But coffee may also have a direct effect on inflammation or cardiovascular health, he said.

“It doesn’t seem to do you any harm, if you like drinking coffee then carry on,” Gunter said.

Coffee can be part of a healthy, balanced lifestyle, and it may even do some good, though we can’t yet recommend than non-drinkers adopt the habit for health reasons, he said.

Gender Related Secret to Longevity in Stem Cells

Human supercentenarians share at least one thing in common–over 95 percent are women. Scientists have long observed differences between the sexes when it comes to aging, but there is no clear explanation for why females live longer. In a discussion of what we know about stem cell behavior and sex, Stanford University researchers Ben Dulken and Anne Brunet argue that it’s time to look at differences in regenerative decline between men and women. This line of research could open up new explanations for how the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone, or other factors, modify lifespan.

It’s known that estrogen has direct effects on stem cell populations in female mice, from increasing the number of blood stem cells (which is very helpful during pregnancy) to enhancing the regenerative capacity of brain stem cells at the height of estrus. Whether these changes have a direct impact on lifespan is what’s yet to be explored. Recent studies have already found that estrogen supplements increase the lifespan of male mice, and that human eunuchs live about 14 years longer than non-castrated males.

More work is also needed to understand how genetics impacts stem cell aging between the sexes. Scientists have seen that knocking out different genes in mice can add longevity benefits to one sex but not the other, and that males in twin studies have shorter telomeres–a sign of shorter cellular lifespan–compared to females.

“It is likely that sex plays a role in defining both lifespan and healthspan, and the effects of sex may not be identical for these two variables,” the authors write. “As the search continues for ways to ameliorate the aging process and maintain the regenerative capacity of stem cells, let us not forget one of the most effective aging modifiers: sex.”

Hugs Reduce Effects of Stress

Instead of an apple, could a hug-a-day keep the doctor away? According to new research from Carnegie Mellon University, that may not be that far-fetched of an idea.

Led by Sheldon Cohen, the Robert E. Doherty University Professor of Psychology in CMU’s Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, the researchers tested whether hugs act as a form of social support, protecting stressed people from getting sick. Published in Psychological Science, they found that greater social support and more frequent hugs protected people from the increased susceptibility to infection associated with being stressed and resulted in less severe illness symptoms.

Cohen and his team chose to study hugging as an example of social support because hugs are typically a marker of having a more intimate and close relationship with another person.

“We know that people experiencing ongoing conflicts with others are less able to fight off cold viruses. We also know that people who report having social support are partly protected from the effects of stress on psychological states, such as depression and anxiety,” said Cohen. “We tested whether perceptions of social support are equally effective in protecting us from stress-induced susceptibility to infection and also whether receiving hugs might partially account for those feelings of support and themselves protect a person against infection.”

In 404 healthy adults, perceived support was assessed by a questionnaire, and frequencies of interpersonal conflicts and receiving hugs were derived from telephone interviews conducted on 14 consecutive evenings. Then, the participants were intentionally exposed to a common cold virus and monitored in quarantine to assess infection and signs of illness.

The results showed that perceived social support reduced the risk of infection associated with experiencing conflicts. Hugs were responsible for one-third of the protective effect of social support. Among infected participants, greater perceived social support and more frequent hugs both resulted in less severe illness symptoms whether or not they experienced conflicts.

“This suggests that being hugged by a trusted person may act as an effective means of conveying support and that increasing the frequency of hugs might be an effective means of reducing the deleterious effects of stress,” Cohen said. “The apparent protective effect of hugs may be attributable to the physical contact itself or to hugging being a behavioral indicator of support and intimacy.”

Cohen added, “Either way, those who receive more hugs are somewhat more protected from infection.”

Extreme Longevity Genes Discovered

Centenarians show successful aging as they remain active and alert at very old ages. Scientists at Stanford University and the University of Bologna have begun to unravel the basis for longevity by finding genetic loci associated with extreme longevity.

Previous work indicated that centenarians have factors in their genetic make-up that contribute to successful aging. However, prior genetic studies have identified only a single gene APOE that was different in centenarians versus normal agers. The results from the current study indicate that several disease variants may be absent in centenarians versus the general population.

The report by Kristen Fortney and colleagues, published in PLOS Genetics, is an example of using Big Data to glean information about an extremely complicated trait such as longevity. To find the longevity genes, the authors first derived a new statistical method (termed ‘informed GWAS’) that takes advantage of knowledge from fourteen diseases to narrow the search genes associated with longevity. Using iGWAS, the scientists found five longevity loci that provide clues about physiological mechanisms for successful aging. These loci are known to be involved in various processes including cell senescence, autoimmunity and cell signaling, and also with Alzheimer’s disease.

The incidence of nearly all diseases increases with age, so understanding genetic factors for successful aging could have a large impact on health. Future work may lead to a better understanding of how these genes promote successful aging. Also, future studies could identify additional longevity genes by recruiting more centenarians for analysis.

Reference:

1.Kristen Fortney, Edgar Dobriban, Paolo Garagnani, Chiara Pirazzini, Daniela Monti, Daniela Mari, Gil Atzmon, Nir Barzilai, Claudio Franceschi, Art B. Owen, Stuart K. Kim. Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity. PLOS Genetics, 2015; 11 (12): e1005728 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005728

As Overweight Increases It Becomes Harder to Lose Weight

The fatter we are, the more our body appears to produce a protein that inhibits our ability to burn fat, suggests new research published in the journal Nature Communication. The findings may have implications for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

Most of the fat cells in the body act to store excess energy and release it when needed but some types of fat cells, known as brown adipocytes, function primarily for a process known as thermogenesis, which generates heat to keep us warm. However, an international team of researchers from the Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Institute of Metabolic Sciences at the University of Cambridge, UK, and Toho University, Japan, have shown that a protein found in the body, known as sLR11, acts to suppress this process.

Researchers investigated why mice that lacked the gene for the production of this protein were far more resistant to weight gain. All mice — and, in fact, humans — increase their metabolic rate slightly when switched from a lower calorie diet to a higher calorie diet, but mice lacking the gene responded with a much greater increase, meaning that they were able to burn calories faster.

Further examinations revealed that in these mice, genes normally associated with brown adipose tissue were more active in white adipose tissue (which normally stores fat for energy release). In line with this observation, the mice themselves were indeed more thermogenic and had increased energy expenditure, particularly following high fat diet feeding.

The researchers were able to show that sLR11 binds to specific receptors on fat cells — in the same way that a key fits into a lock — to inhibit their ability to activate thermogenesis. In effect, sLR11 acts as a signal to increase the efficiency of fat to store energy and prevents excessive energy loss through unrestricted thermogenesis.

When the researchers examined levels of sLR11 in humans, they found that levels of the protein circulating in the blood correlated with total fat mass — in other words, the greater the levels of the protein, the higher the total fat mass. In addition, when obese patients underwent bariatric surgery, their degree of postoperative weight loss was directly proportional to the reduction in their sLR11 levels, suggesting that sLR11 is produced by fat cells.

In their paper the authors suggest that sLR11 helps fat cells resist burning too much fat during ‘spikes’ in other metabolic signals following large meals or short term drops in temperature. This in turn makes adipose tissue more effective at storing energy over long periods of time.

There is growing interest in targeting thermogenesis with drugs in order to treat obesity, diabetes and other associated conditions such as heart disease. This is because it offers a mechanism for disposing of excess fat in a relatively safe manner. A number of molecules have already been identified that can increase thermogenesis and/or the number of fat cells capable of thermogenesis. However to date there have been very few molecules identified that can decrease thermogenesis.

These findings shed light on one of the mechanisms that the body employs to hold onto stored energy, where sLR11 levels increase in line with the amount of stored fat and act to prevent it being ‘wasted’ for thermogenesis.

Dr Andrew Whittle, joint first author, said: “Our discovery may help explain why overweight individuals find it incredibly hard to lose weight. Their stored fat is actively fighting against their efforts to burn it off at the molecular level.”

Professor Toni Vidal-Puig, who led the team, added: “We have found an important mechanism that could be targeted not just to help increase people’s ability to burn fat, but also help people with conditions where saving energy is important such as anorexia nervosa.”

Jeremy Pearson, Associate Medical Director at the British Heart Foundation (BHF), which helped fund the research, said: “This research could stimulate the development of new drugs that either help reduce obesity, by blocking the action of this protein, or control weight loss by mimicking its action. Based on this promising discovery, we look forward to the Cambridge team’s future findings.

“But an effective medicine to treat obesity, which safely manages weight loss is still some way off. In the meantime people can find advice on healthy ways to lose weight and boost their heart healthy on the BHF website — bhf.org.uk.”

Reference:

Andrew J. Whittle, Meizi Jiang, Vivian Peirce, Joana Relat, Sam Virtue, Hiroyuki Ebinuma, Isamu Fukamachi, Takashi Yamaguchi, Mao Takahashi, Takeyoshi Murano, Ichiro Tatsuno, Masahiro Takeuchi, Chiaki Nakaseko, Wenlong Jin, Zhehu Jin, Mark Campbell, Wolfgang J. Schneider, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Hideaki Bujo. Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and correlates with BMI in humans. Nature Communications, 2015; 6: 8951 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9951