Dr Mercola Interviews Dr Villeponteau the Formulator of Stem Cell 100

Dr Bryant Villeponteau the formulator of Stem Cell 100 and other Life Code nutraceuticals was recently interviewed by Dr Mercola who owns the largest health web site on the internet. Dr. Villeponteau is also the author of Decoding Longevity a new book which will be released during December. He is a leading researcher in novel anti-aging therapies involving stem cells an area in which he has been a pioneer for over three decades.

Stem cell technology could have a dramatic influence on our ability to live longer and replace some of our failing parts, which is the inevitable result of the aging process. With an interest in aging and longevity, Dr. Villeponteau started out by studying developmental biology. If we could understand development, we could understand aging, he says. Later, his interest turned more toward the gene regulation aspects. While working as a professor at the University of Michigan at the Institute of Gerontology, he received, and accepted, a job offer from Geron Corporation a Bay Area startup, in the early 90s.

They were working on telomerase, which I was pretty excited about at the time. I joined them when they first started, he says. We had an all-out engagement there to clone human telomerase. It had been cloned in other animals but not in humans or mammals.

If you were to unravel the tip of the chromosome, a telomere is about 15,000 bases long at the moment of conception in the womb. Immediately after conception, your cells begin to divide, and your telomeres begin to shorten each time the cell divides. Once your telomeres have been reduced to about 5,000 bases, you essentially die of old age.

What you have to know about telomerase is that it’s only on in embryonic cells. In adult cells, it’s totally, for the most part, turned off, with the exception of adult stem cells, Dr. Villeponteau explains. Adult stem cells have some telomerase not full and not like the embryonic stem cells, but they do have some telomerase activity.

Most of the research currently being done, both in academia and industrial labs, revolves around either embryonic stem cells, or a second type called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Dr. Villeponteau, on the other hand, believes adult stem cells are the easiest and most efficient way to achieve results.

That said, adult stem cells do have their drawbacks. While they’re your own cells, which eliminates the problem of immune-related issues, there’s just not enough of them. Especially as you get older, there are fewer and fewer adult stem cells, and they tend to become increasingly dysfunctional too. Yet another hurdle is that they don’t form the tissues that they need to form…

To solve such issues, Dr. Villeponteau has created a company with the technology and expertise to amplify your adult stem cells a million-fold or more, while still maintaining their ability to differentiate all the different cell types, and without causing the cells to age. Again, it is the adult stem cells ability to potentially cure, or at least ameliorate, many of our age-related diseases by regenerating tissue that makes this field so exciting.

Dr Villeponteau believes you can add many years, likely decades, to your life simply by eating right, exercising (which promotes the production of muscle stem cells, by the way) and living an otherwise clean and healthy lifestyle. Extreme life extension, on the other hand, is a different matter.

His book, Decoding Longevity, covers preventive strategies to prolong your life, mainly diet, exercise, and supplements. A portion of the book also covers future developments in the area of more radical life extension, such as stem cell technology.

If you would like to read the entire interview here is a link to the text version:

Click here for more information about Stem Cell 100

Transcript of Interview With Dr. Bryant Villeponteau by Dr. Joseph Mercola

Aging Reversed / ABC News

Now researchers have found a way not just to stop, but, reverse the aging process. The key is something called a telomere. We all have them. They are the tips or caps of your chromosomes. They are long and stable in young adults, but, as we age they become shorter, damaged and frayed. When they stop working we start aging and experience things like hearing and memory loss.

In a recent study published in the peer reviewed journal Nature scientists took mice that were prematurely aged to the equivalent of 80-year-old humans, added an enzyme and essentially turned their telomeres back on. After the treatment they were the physiological equivalent of young adults. You can see the before and after pictures in the videos above. Brain function improved, their fertility was restored it was a remarkable reversal of the aging process. In the top video the untreated mouse shows bad skin, gray hair and it is balding. The mouse with it’s telomeres switched back on has a dark coat color, the hair is restored and the coat has a nice healthy sheen to it. Even more dramatic is the change in brain size. Before treatment the aged mice had 75% of a normal size brain like a patient with severe Alzheimers. After the telomeres were reactivated the brain returned to normal size. As for humans while it is just one factor scientists say the longer the telomeres the better the chances for a more graceful aging.

The formal study Telomere dysfunction induces metabolic and mitochondrial compromise was published in Nature.

Additional information published by Harvard can be found in the following articles.

Scientists Find Root Molecular Cause of Declining Health in the Old

Decoding Immortality – Smithsonian Channel Video about the Discovery of Telomerase

While scientists are not yet able to accomplish the same results in humans we believe we have developed a nutraceutical to help prolong youth and possibly extend life until age reversal therapy for humans becomes available.

Stem Cells Secret’s of 115 Year Old Woman

New evidence that adult stem cells are critical to human aging has recently been published on a study done on a super-centenarian woman that lived to be 115 years. At death, her circulating stem cell pool had declined to just two active stem cells from stem cell counts that are typically more than a thousand in younger adults. Super-centenarians have survived all the normal diseases that kill 99.9% of us before 100 years of age, so it has been a mystery as to what actually kills these hardy individuals. This recent data suggest that stem cell decline may be the main contributor to aging. If so, stabilizing stem cells may be the best thing one can do to slow your rate of aging.

There are many theories of aging that have been proposed. For example, damage to cells and tissues from oxidative stress has been one of the most popular fundamental theories of aging for more than half a century. Yet antioxidant substances or genes that code antioxidant enzymes have proven largely ineffective in slowing aging when tested in model animals. Thus, interest by scientists has shifted to other hypotheses that might provide a better explanation for the slow declines in function with age.

Stem cells provide one such promising mechanism of aging. Of course, we all know that babies are young and vigorous, independent of the age of their parents. This is because adults have embryonic stem cells that can generate young new cells needed to form a complete young baby. Indeed, these embryonic stem cells are the product of continuously evolving stem cell populations that go back to the beginning of life on earth over 3.5 billion years ago!

In adults, the mostly immortal embryonic stem cells give rise to mortal adult stem cells in all the tissues of the body. These adult stem cells can regenerate your cells and tissues as they wear out and need replacement. Unfortunate, adult stem cells also age, which leads to fewer cells and/or loss of function in cell replacement. As functional stem cells decline, skin and organs decline with age.

Blood from world’s oldest woman suggests life limit

Time Magazine: Long-Life Secrets From The 115-Year-Old Woman

Somatic mutations found in the healthy blood compartment of a 115-yr-old woman demonstrate oligoclonal hematopoiesis

Abstract
The somatic mutation burden in healthy white blood cells (WBCs) is not well known. Based on deep whole-genome sequencing, we estimate that approximately 450 somatic mutations accumulated in the nonrepetitive genome within the healthy blood compartment of a 115-yr-old woman. The detected mutations appear to have been harmless passenger mutations: They were enriched in noncoding, AT-rich regions that are not evolutionarily conserved, and they were depleted for genomic elements where mutations might have favorable or adverse effects on cellular fitness, such as regions with actively transcribed genes. The distribution of variant allele frequencies of these mutations suggests that the majority of the peripheral white blood cells were offspring of two related hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) clones. Moreover, telomere lengths of the WBCs were significantly shorter than telomere lengths from other tissues. Together, this suggests that the finite lifespan of HSCs, rather than somatic mutation effects, may lead to hematopoietic clonal evolution at extreme ages.

A Key Ingredient in Mediterranean Diet May Extend Life

The team at the University of Minnesota Medical School researched olive oil and may have found what it is that activates the pathway to increased lifespan and health!

Previous studies into the Mediterranean Diet identified red wine as a key contributor to the health benefits of this diet. Red wine contains a compound known as resveratrol which activates certain pathways in cells to assist in healthier aging. What the recent research has shown is that it is the fat in olive oil that is activating the same pathway.

According to the team, just consuming olive oil is not enough to elicit all of its health benefits. They suggest that when combined with limiting caloric intake, fasting, and exercising, the effects of consuming olive oil are more pronounced.

They found that the way the fat in olive oil works is it first needs to get stored in microscopic things known as lipid droplets which is how the cells in our body store fat. When the fat is then broken down during fasting or exercising, is when signaling and the beneficial effects are realized.

The team will further their research by translating it to humans with the goal of discovering new ways to further tailor dietary regimens that will improve health both in the short term and long term. They want to understand the biology and hopefully change the paradigm of health care from a person seeing a variety of different doctors to treat a variety of disorders. The goal is to treat aging!

To view the original scientific study click below

Lipid Droplet-Derived Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Traffic via PLIN5 to Allosterically Activate SIRT1.

When to Eat to Manage Weight

How we balance weight gain and weight loss is predominantly due to what we eat, how much we eat and by how much we exercise. However, another important factor is often looked over. It isn’t just about how many calories we consume, but when we eat them that will determine how well we will burn those calories.

In a study by Researchers at the Vanderbilt University, the metabolism of mid aged and older participants was monitored in a whole room respiratory chamber over two 56 hour sessions using a random crossover experimental design.

In both sessions, lunch and dinner were served at the same times (12:30 and 5:45 respectively), but the timing of the third meal differed between the two halves of the study. In one of the 56 hour time frames the additional meal was served as breakfast at 8:00 a.m. In the other session a nutritionally equivalentt meal was served as a late evening snack at 7:00 p.m. The length of the overnight fast was the same for the two sessions.

Although the two sessions did not differ in the type or amount of food eaten or in the participant’s activity levels, the daily timing of nutrient availability along with clock/sleep control of metabolism, flipped a switch in the participant’s fat/carbohydrate preference such that the late evening snack meal resulted in less fat burned when compared to the morning session.

The results indicate the timing of meals during the day and night cycle affect the extent to which consumed food is used versus being stored. The study has important implications in regards to eating habits suggesting that daily fast between an evening meal and breakfast will maximize weight management.

To view the original scientific study click below

Eating breakfast and avoiding late-evening snacking sustains lipid oxidation.

Red Meat and Processed Meats Linked to Severe Health Risks

A new large study has linked consuming processed meats and red meats to a higher risk of death and heart disease. The study from Northwestern Medicine and Cornell University refutes a previous controversial study that showed it was not necessary for people to alter their diet in regards to processed and red meats.

Last fall the controversial report encouraged people to not worry about health risks by consuming processed and red meat which contradicts decades of nutrition advice. The report was widely criticized by public health experts including groups like the American Cancer Society and the American Heart Association. The recent study highlights the potential harm of a meat heavy diet.

The current research included a diverse group of 29,682 people with a mean age of 53.7 years at baseline and included 44.4% men and 30.7% non-white. All diet data was self reported by the participants who were asked to complete a long list of what they consumed for the previous month or year.

The study pooled together a large diverse sample from six cohorts and also included long follow-up data for up to three decades, harmonized diet data to reduce heterogeneity, adjusted a comprehensive set of con founders, and conducted multiple sensitivity analysis.

The research has shown that consuming two servings of processed meat, red meat or poultry and not and fish per week was linked to a 3 to 7% higher risk of cardiovascular disease. And consuming two serving of processed or red meat and not poultry or fish per week was found to be linked to a 3% higher risk of all causes of death.

While it is a small difference, reducing processed and red meat such as deli meats, bologna, and pepperoni is worth trying to help reduce the higher risk of a variety of health problems. Modifying the consumption of these particular protein foods could be an important strategy for reducing the risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease at a population levels says the research team.

The study showed that the link to cardiovascular disease and mortality was robust. The previous meta analysis last November recommended people not reduce their consumption of processed and red meats. People interpreted it to mean it is was okay to consume these foods, however the team states that the science does not support that.

The findings reinforce recommendations for people to prioritize healthier food choices such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, fish, seeds, and nuts and limit the consumption of processed and red meats, fried foods, sugar laden beverages, and refined grains. Seafood, fish and plant based sources of protein such as legumes and nuts and including peas and beans, are excellent alternatives to meat. These foods are under consumed in the United States.

The study did find a positive association between consuming poultry and cardiovascular disease, but the evidence isn’t yet sufficient to make a clear recommendation in regards to poultry consumption.

Limitations of the study included only one dietary intake assessment and dietary behaviors could have changed over time. Also, cooking methods were not considered. Deep fat fried foods that contribute to trans fatty acids such as fried chicken and fried fish have been positively linked to a variety of chronic diseases.

To view the original scientific study click below

Associations of Processed Meat, Unprocessed Red Meat, Poultry, or Fish Intake With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality

Mediterranean Diet can Promote Gut Bacteria

New research has indicated that eating a Mediterranean diet for a year can help boost gut bacteria which are linked to healthy aging. The five country study also indicates this diet can help reduce bacteria that is associated with harmful inflammation in older people.

Aging is associated with the deterioration of bodily functions and an increase in inflammation. Both are also associated with the onset of frailty. The Mediterranean Diet may act on gut bacteria in a way that helps curb the advance of cognitive decline and physical frailty in advancing years.

Previous studies have suggested that a restrictive/poor diet which is typical among older people and particularly those in long term residential care, reduces the types and range of bacteria or microbiome that is found in the gut and helps accelerate the onset of frailty.

The researchers in the current study wanted to see if the Mediterranean Diet might help maintain the microbiome in the gut of older people and help promote the retention and possibly proliferation of bacteria that are associated with healthy aging.

The team analyzed the gut microbiome of 612 participants aged 65 to 79 before and following 12 months of either consuming their usual diet or a Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet was rich in vegetables, fruits, olive oil, fish and legumes and low in saturated fats and red meat.

The participants who were either on the verge of frailty or were already considered frail or not frail at the start of the study resided in five different countries – France, Netherlands, Italy, the UK and Poland. Those who stuck with the Mediterranean diet for the period of 12 months were associated with beneficial changes to the gut microbiome.

The results were associated with stemming the loss of bacterial diversity; an increase in bacteria types previously linked with several indicators of diminished frailty such as hand grip strength and walking speed, and improved brain function; and with reduced production of potentially harmful inflammatory chemicals.

Additional detailed analysis indicated that the microbiome changes were linked with an increase in bacteria types known to produce beneficial short chain fatty acids and a decrease in bacteria involved in the production of particular bile acids. An over production of these bile acids is linked to increased risk of bowel cancer, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and cell damage.

The bacteria that proliferated in response to the Mediterranean diet acted as keystone species which meant they were critical to a stable gut ecosystem and the pushing out of microbes linked with indicators of frailty.

The changes were mainly driven by an increase in fiber and associated minerals and vitamins. The vitamins and minerals noted were B6, B9, C, potassium, copper, manganese, iron, and magnesium. The findings were independent of the participant’s weight or age both of which influence the make up of microbiome.

There were some differences in the gut microbiome of participants depending on country of origin to start with, however the response to the Mediterranean diet after the 12 month period was consistent and similar irrespective of nationality.

The research team does note that their findings cannot establish a causative role for the microbiome in health and some of the implications are inferred rather than directly measured. The interplay of diet, host health, and microbiome is a complex phenomenon which is influenced by a variety of factors.

The results of the study shed light on some of the rules of this three way interplay. A variety of factors such as body mass index, age, initial dietary patterns, and disease status may play a significant role in determining the extent of the success of these interactions.

The Mediterranean diet may be a challenge for some older adults, particularly those with dental problems and/or difficulty swallowing. However, the beneficial bacteria implicated in health aging found in this study may potentially prove useful therapeutic agents to help ward off frailty.

To view the original scientific study click below

Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries.

Obesity Considered as Premature Aging

According to a new study led by Sylvia Santosa at Concordia University’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the mechanisms by which aging and obesity develop are very similar. The team believes that obesity should now be considered premature aging because it predisposes people to acquiring potentially life altering diseases which are normally seen in older people.

Around the world there are an estimated 1.9 billion adults and 380 million children who are either obese or overweight. The World Health Organization says more people are actually dying from overweight than underweight.

With the goal of trying to comprehensively show that obesity parallels aging, the team reviewed more than 200 papers which looked at obesity’s effects and how obesity ages the body from a variety of perspectives. They looked at the immune system to shifts in tissue and body composition, and the processes of cell death and the ongoing maintenance of healthy cells that are typically associated with aging.

Previous studies have shown that obesity is linked to premature death and have shown that obesity induced apoptosis has been observed in mice livers, hearts, neurons, kidneys, retinas and inner ears. Obesity also inhibits autophagy which can lead to a variety of life threatening diseases.

The team notes that at the lowest levels inside the human body, obesity is a factor that directly speeds up aging mechanisms. At the genetic level, the team discovered that obesity influences a number of alterations generally associated with aging. These include the shortening of telomeres which are the protective caps found on the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres in people who are obese can be more than 25% shorter than those seen in control patients.

The study has also suggested that obesity’s effects on mobility, cognitive decline, stress, and hypertension are all similar to those of aging. From the cellular level, the team says obesity plays a significant role in the body’s defenses against age related diseases. Obesity will speed up the aging of the immune system through targeting different immune cells and that later weight loss will not always reverse this process.

Obese people can also be at a higher risk of sarcopenia which is a disease associated with aging and causes a progressive decline in muscle strength and mass. Additionally they have a higher risk of diseases such as the flu which will often affect obese people at a higher rate than people with normal weight.

The hope is that these observations will focus approaches to understanding obesity in a better way and also allow people to think about obesity in a different way.

To view the original scientific study click below

Obesity and ageing: Two sides of the same coin.

New Bone Building Stem Cells Discovered

A group of researchers have discovered a population of stem cells which have the ability to generate new bone. They reside along the vascular channels that stretch across bone and connect the inner and outer parts of the bone.

This is a new discovery of perivascular cells which reside within the bone itself. They can generate new bone forming cells, and these cells likely regulate the formation of bone or participate in bone mass repair and maintenance.

It has long been thought that stem cells for bone are present within bone marrow and the outer surfaces of bone. Recent research has described the existence of a network of vascular channels that assisted in distributing blood cells out of bone marrow. However, no studies have proven the existence of cells within these channels that have the ability to form new bone.

In the recent study, the team are the first to report the existence of these progenitor cells within cortical bone that can generate new osteoblasts or new bone forming cells and can be used to remodel bone. The team observed the stem cells within an ex vivo bone transplantation model. The cells migrated out of the transplant and began to reconstruct the bone marrow cavity and begin forming new bone.

Although the study shows this population of cells which can help aid formation of bone, more research is needed to determine the cell’s potential to regulate bone resorption and formation.

To view the original scientific study click below

Perivascular osteoprogenitors are associated with transcortical channels of long bones.

Beauty Sleep Could Be Real

Biologists at The University of Manchester have discovered for the first time why having a great night’s sleep could set us up for the rigors of the day ahead. The study shows how the body clock mechanism will boost our ability to maintain our bodies during the hours we are most active.

It is known that the body clock is not as precise as we age. The new discovery may one day help researchers unlock some of the mysteries behind aging. The recent discovery sheds fascinating light on the bodies extracellular matrix. This matrix provides biochemical and structural support to cells in the form of connective tissue such as skin, bone, cartilage and tendon.

Over one half of our body weight is matrix and half of this is collagen. It has been long understood that it is fully formed by the time a person reaches the age of 17. Now researchers have discovered there are two types of fibrils which are rope like structures of collagen that are woven by cells to form tissues.

Thick fibrils measure about 200 nanometers in diameter. This is a million times smaller than a pinhead. They are permanent and remain with us throughout our lives, unchanged from the age of 17.

However, thinner fibrils measuring 50 nanometers are sacrificial. They break when we subject our body to the rigors of the day, They do however replenish when we rest at night.

Mice were used for the study. Collagen was observed by mass spectrometry and the mouse fibrils were observed through the use of state of the art volumetric electron microscopy every 4 hours over 2 days. When the body clock genes where knocked out in the mice, the thick and thin fibrils were amalgamated randomly.

Since collagen provides the body with structure and is also our most abundant protein, it is intuitive to think our matrix should be worn down by wear and tear. However it isn’t and the team knows why. Our body clock makes an element which is sacrificial and can be replenished. This protects the permanent parts of the matrix.

Having this new information and discovery could have implications for understanding our biology at the most fundamental level It could give some deeper insight into how wounds heal and also how we age.

To view the original scientific study click below

Circadian control of the secretory pathway is a central mechanism in tissue homeostasis