Dr Bryant Villeponteau the formulator of Stem Cell 100 and other Life Code nutraceuticals was recently interviewed by Dr Mercola who owns the largest health web site on the internet. Dr. Villeponteau is also the author of Decoding Longevity an new book which will be released during December. He is a leading researcher in novel anti-aging therapies involving stem cells an area in which he has been a pioneer for over three decades.

Stem cell technology could have a dramatic influence on our ability to live longer and replace some of our failing parts, which is the inevitable result of the aging process. With an interest in aging and longevity, Dr. Villeponteau started out by studying developmental biology. ?If we could understand development, we could understand aging,? he says. Later, his interest turned more toward the gene regulation aspects. While working as a professor at the University of Michigan at the Institute of Gerontology, he received, and accepted, a job offer from Geron Corporation?a Bay Area startup, in the early ?90s.

?They were working on telomerase, which I was pretty excited about at the time. I joined them when they first started,? he says. ?We had an all-out engagement there to clone human telomerase. It had been cloned in other animals but not in humans or mammals.?

If you were to unravel the tip of the chromosome, a telomere is about 15,000 bases long at the moment of conception in the womb. Immediately after conception, your cells begin to divide, and your telomeres begin to shorten each time the cell divides. Once your telomeres have been reduced to about 5,000 bases, you essentially die of old age.

?What you have to know about telomerase is that it?s only on in embryonic cells. In adult cells, it?s totally, for the most part, turned off, with the exception of adult stem cells,? Dr. Villeponteau explains. ?Adult stem cells have some telomerase ? not full and not like the embryonic stem cells, but they do have some telomerase activity.?

Most of the research currently being done, both in academia and industrial labs, revolves around either embryonic stem cells, or a second type called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Dr. Villeponteau, on the other hand, believes adult stem cells are the easiest and most efficient way to achieve results.

That said, adult stem cells do have their drawbacks. While they?re your own cells, which eliminates the problem of immune-related issues, there?s just not enough of them. Especially as you get older, there are fewer and fewer adult stem cells, and they tend to become increasingly dysfunctional too. Yet another hurdle is that they don?t form the tissues that they need to form…

To solve such issues, Dr. Villeponteau has created a company with the technology and expertise to amplify your adult stem cells a million-fold or more, while still maintaining their ability to differentiate all the different cell types, and without causing the cells to age. Again, it is the adult stem cell?s ability to potentially cure, or at least ameliorate, many of our age-related diseases by regenerating tissue that makes this field so exciting.

Dr Villeponteau believes you can add many years, likely decades, to your life simply by eating right, exercising (which promotes the production of muscle stem cells, by the way) and living an otherwise clean and healthy lifestyle. Extreme life extension, on the other hand, is a different matter.

His book, Decoding Longevity, covers preventive strategies to prolong your life, mainly diet, exercise, and supplements. A portion of the book also covers future developments in the area of more radical life extension, such as stem cell technology.

If you would like to read the entire interview here is a link to the text version:

Transcript of Interview With Dr. Bryant Villeponteau by Dr. Joseph Mercola

lroot on July 12th, 2018

Now researchers have found a way not just to stop, but, reverse the aging process. The key is something called a telomere. We all have them. They are the tips or caps of your chromosomes. They are long and stable in young adults, but, as we age they become shorter, damaged and frayed. When they stop working we start aging and experience things like hearing and memory loss.

In a recent study published in the peer reviewed journal Nature scientists took mice that were prematurely aged to the equivalent of 80-year-old humans, added an enzyme and essentially turned their telomeres back on. After the treatment they were the physiological equivalent of young adults. You can see the before and after pictures in the videos above. Brain function improved, their fertility was restored it was a remarkable reversal of the aging process. In the top video the untreated mouse shows bad skin, gray hair and it is balding. The mouse with it’s telomeres switched back on has a dark coat color, the hair is restored and the coat has a nice healthy sheen to it. Even more dramatic is the change in brain size. Before treatment the aged mice had 75% of a normal size brain like a patient with severe Alzheimers. After the telomeres were reactivated the brain returned to normal size. As for humans while it is just one factor scientists say the longer the telomeres the better the chances for a more graceful aging.

The formal study Telomere dysfunction induces metabolic and mitochondrial compromise was published in Nature.

Additional information published by Harvard can be found in the following articles.

Scientists Find Root Molecular Cause of Declining Health in the Old

Decoding Immortality – Smithsonian Channel Video about the Discovery of Telomerase

While scientists are not yet able to accomplish the same results in humans we believe we have developed a nutraceutical to help prolong youth and possibly extend life until age reversal therapy for humans becomes available.

lroot on July 5th, 2018

New evidence that adult stem cells are critical to human aging has recently been published on a study done on a super-centenarian woman that lived to be 115 years. At death, her circulating stem cell pool had declined to just two active stem cells from stem cell counts that are typically more than a thousand in younger adults. Super-centenarians have survived all the normal diseases that kill 99.9% of us before 100 years of age, so it has been a mystery as to what actually kills these hardy individuals. This recent data suggest that stem cell decline may be the main contributor to aging. If so, stabilizing stem cells may be the best thing one can do to slow your rate of aging.

There are many theories of aging that have been proposed. For example, damage to cells and tissues from oxidative stress has been one of the most popular fundamental theories of aging for more than half a century. Yet antioxidant substances or genes that code antioxidant enzymes have proven largely ineffective in slowing aging when tested in model animals. Thus, interest by scientists has shifted to other hypotheses that might provide a better explanation for the slow declines in function with age.

Stem cells provide one such promising mechanism of aging. Of course, we all know that babies are young and vigorous, independent of the age of their parents. This is because adults have embryonic stem cells that can generate young new cells needed to form a complete young baby. Indeed, these embryonic stem cells are the product of continuously evolving stem cell populations that go back to the beginning of life on earth over 3.5 billion years ago!

In adults, the mostly immortal embryonic stem cells give rise to mortal adult stem cells in all the tissues of the body. These adult stem cells can regenerate your cells and tissues as they wear out and need replacement. Unfortunate, adult stem cells also age, which leads to fewer cells and/or loss of function in cell replacement. As functional stem cells decline, skin and organs decline with age.

Blood from world’s oldest woman suggests life limit

Time Magazine: Long-Life Secrets From The 115-Year-Old Woman

Somatic mutations found in the healthy blood compartment of a 115-yr-old woman demonstrate oligoclonal hematopoiesis

Abstract
The somatic mutation burden in healthy white blood cells (WBCs) is not well known. Based on deep whole-genome sequencing, we estimate that approximately 450 somatic mutations accumulated in the nonrepetitive genome within the healthy blood compartment of a 115-yr-old woman. The detected mutations appear to have been harmless passenger mutations: They were enriched in noncoding, AT-rich regions that are not evolutionarily conserved, and they were depleted for genomic elements where mutations might have favorable or adverse effects on cellular fitness, such as regions with actively transcribed genes. The distribution of variant allele frequencies of these mutations suggests that the majority of the peripheral white blood cells were offspring of two related hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) clones. Moreover, telomere lengths of the WBCs were significantly shorter than telomere lengths from other tissues. Together, this suggests that the finite lifespan of HSCs, rather than somatic mutation effects, may lead to hematopoietic clonal evolution at extreme ages.

planaria

Researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have discovered the one cell that has the capability of regenerating an entire organism. Until recently scientists lacked the tools that could target and track this cell which enables a variety of creatures such as the planarian flatworm to perform amazing feats such as regrowing a severed head.

By pioneering a new technique that combines single cell analysis, flow cytometry, imaging and genomics, the researchers have isolated this regenerative cell which is a subtype of the earlier studied adult pluripotent stem cell before it performed this remarkable act. Now that this stem cell has been isolated prospectively the findings prove that this is no longer an abstraction. There really is a cellular entity that can restore to animals and humans the ability to regenerate any part of the body.

All multicellular organisms are built from a single cell which divides multiple times. Each of the cells has the exact same twisted strands of DNA and is considered pluripotent which means it can give rise to all cell type possibilities in the body. However somewhere along the way the starter cells which are known as embryonic stem cells find a different fate and become heart cells, muscle cells, skin cells and other types of cells. In humans no known pluripotent stem cells will remain after birth, however in planarians they remain into adulthood. Here they become known as adult pluripotent stem cells or neoblasts. It is believed these neoblasts contain the secret to regeneration.

It is only in the last 20 years that scientists have been able to characterize this powerful cell population using molecular techniques and functional assays. The work showed that this seemingly homogenous cell population was a conglomeration of different subtypes all with different patterns and properties of gene expression. Previous to the current study, scientists would have to transplant over a hundred single cells into the same amount of worms to find the one that is truly pluripotent and has the ability to regenerate the organism. Not only would that be a lot of work, but to define it molecularly by identifying the genes that cell is expressing they would have to destroy the cell for processing which meant not being able to keep the cell alive to track its regeneration.

The team began searching for a distinguishing characteristic that would identify this elusive cell ahead of time. A stem cell marker known as piwi 1 is able to distinguish neoblasts so the team decided to begin there. They first separated the cells that expressed this marker from the ones that did not. They then noticed the cells could be separated into two groups…one that expressed lower levels of piwi 1 and ones that expressed high levels of piwi 1. They found that the ones that were piwi 1 high were the ones that fit the molecular definition of neoblasts and so the other ones were discarded.

This type of gene expression and protein levels had never been conducted in planarians. Previously researchers believed all cells which expressed the piwi 1 were true neoblasts and it wasn’t relevant how much of the marker they expressed. The team showed it did make a difference.

The researchers selected 8,000+ of the high piwi 1 cells and proceeded to analyze their gene expression patterns. To their surprise, the cells fell into 12 different subgroups. Through elimination they excluded any subgroups that had genetic signatures indicating they were cells destined for a particular fate such as skin or muscle cells. That left them with two subgroups that could still be pluripotent. These two groups were called Nb1 and Nb2.

The cells in NB2 group expressed a gene coding for a member of the tetraspanin protein family which is a group of evolutionary ancient and also very poorly understood proteins that sit on the cell surface. They made an antibody that could latch onto this protein and pull the cells that carried it out of a mixture of other neoblasts. They then transplanted the single purified cell into a planarian which had been subjected to lethal levels of radiation. The cells not only repopulated and rescued the planarian, but they did so 14 times more consistently than cells which had been purified by older methods.

The fact that the marker the team discovered is expressed not only in planarians but also in humans, opens the door to new experiments never thought possible. It would make sense that these principles could be broadly applicable to any organism that has ever relied on stems cells to become what they are today. That is everybody!

To view the original scientific study click here: Prospectively Isolated Tetraspanin Neoblasts Are Adult Pluripotent Stem Cells Underlying Planaria Regeneration

lroot on June 29th, 2018

Glass of Water

According to a study conducted by the University of Illinois at Chicago intermittent fasting can be a very effective tool to help lower blood pressure and help in weight loss. This study is the first to look at the effects of time-restricted eating which is fasting for a select number of hours per day in regards to weight loss and also including other measures of health.

Researchers worked with 23 obese participants who had an average age of 45 and an average BMI of 35. From 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. the volunteers could eat any quality and type of food they desired, but for the remaining hours in a 24 hour period they could only have calorie free beverages or water. The study lasted for 12 weeks. The researchers measured a variety of factors including blood pressure, glucose level, fat mass and cholesterol.

After the 12 week period of the diet the researchers compared the results to another matched historical control group from an earlier weight loss trial and found the recent group lost weight and improved their blood pressure. The recent group consumed approximately 350 less calories, saw their systolic blood pressure reduced by about 7 millimeters of mercury, and lost about 3% of their body weight. Other measures such as insulin resistance, cholesterol and fat mass were similar to the earlier group.

The study shows that there are options for a weight loss plan that does not require calorie counting or eliminating certain foods. Intermittent fasting is certainly an option. The results were very similar to other studies which focused on alternate day fasting, but what they did note is that it is usually easier for people to follow what is referred to as the 16:8 diet which is 16 hours of fasting with 8 hours of feasting which is what they recent study was.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has estimated that more than 1/3 of adults in the United States are obese. Obesity leads to coronary heart disease, Type 2 Diabetes and a host of other metabolic diseases. Finding a diet such as the 16:8 diet that is workable for an individual is important as even small amounts of success can result in improvements in metabolic health!

To view the original scientific study click here: Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults

lroot on May 21st, 2018

Woman Meditating

It has long been known that meditation and other breath focused practices will increase the strength of focusing on tasks. A study by research staff at Trinity College Dublin and Global Brain Health Institute at Trinity have found the neurophysical connection between breathing and attention.

Yoga and other breath focused meditation practices have many cognitive benefits. Better focus, less wandering of the mind, an increase in positive emotions, arousal levels heightened and less emotional reactivity are among the benefits. Until the recent study there was no known direct neurophysical connection known between cognition and respiration or even suggested at.

For the first time breathing has been shown to directly affect levels of noradrenaline, a natural brain chemical messenger. Noradrenaline is released when a person is curious, challenged, exercised, focused and emotionally aroused. The brain gets help in growing new connections when noradrenaline is produced at the right levels. Breathing actually directly affects brain chemistry, our attention is enhanced and our brain health is improved.

The study found that participants who focus well during tasks that demand a great amount of attention had much greater synchronization between their attention and breathing. Those who focused poorly did not fair as well. The researchers believe that breath control practices might be used to stabilize attention and increase the health of the brain.

Yoga practitioners have known for over 2500 years that breathing influences the mind. The researchers looked at the connection that would explain the claims by breath measurements, reaction time and then activity of the brain in the locus coerulues, a small region of the brain stem where noradrenaline is produced. When a person is stressed, their brain produces too much noradrenaline and focusing is difficult. On the other hand, when we are feeling sluggish too little noradrenaline is produced. The researchers found that there is a ?sweet? spot of noradrenaline where our thinking, our memory and our emotions are much clearer.

The researchers found that when a person breathes in locus coeruleus activity is slightly increased and when a person breathes out it will decrease. This indicates that our attention is affected by our breathing, falling and rising with our cycle of breathing. By regulating and focusing on our breathing, we can optimize our level of attention. And by focusing on our attention level our breathing will become more synchronized.

Additional research could assist in developing non pharmacological therapies for those who might have attention compromised challenges such as traumatic brain injuries and ADHD, and additionally helping older people in cognition support. The research is particularly encouraging for further research in aging of the brain. As brains age they will typically lose mass, but less so in the brains of people who have practiced meditation for quite a while. Younger brains have less risk of dementia and meditation practices and techniques will strengthen the brain networks. A possible explanation for this is that by using breathing to control noradrenaline in the correct dose, we are helping our brain build new connections between the brain?s cells.

Buddhists and Yogis believe the breath to be a suitable object for meditation practices. Pranayama which is regulated breathing in a precise way and observing the breathing, causes changes in attention, arousal, and emotional control that are of great benefit to the person meditating.

Mindfulness (focus on breathing) and deep breathing practices (such as pranayama) are the traditional forms of breath focused practices. Mindfulness which emphasizes focus and attention will benefit those with compromised attention spans. The person focuses solely on the sensations of breathing but does not make any effort to control them. When a person?s level of arousal results in poor attention such as with driving while drowsy or a panic attack, this level of arousal could by controlled with controlled breathing.

To view the original scientific study click here: Coupling of respiration and attention via the locus coeruleus: Effects of meditation and pranayama

lroot on May 18th, 2018

Stem Cells

Average life expectancy is continuing to rise, and with that trend age-related degenerative and chronic diseases increase also. New stem cell research which focuses on iPSCs or induced pluripotent stem cells, has shown promise for the aging population for cell based treatments such as organ replacement. The evidence shows that the age of donors does not appear to influence functionality. This offers promising hope for improvement in quality of life and longevity in older populations.

iPSCs are stem cells that can be generated directly from adult stem cells. They are derived by introducing products or specific sets of reprogramming factors into a given cell type. The review of current data on iPSCs has shown that older adults may benefit from iPSCs for personalized regenerative treatments and also for modeling genetic diseases. iPSCs may therefore be a viable alternative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) which have limitations and include ethical concerns. It has been previously thought that ESCs are the only reliable source for cells that are young and do not accumulate the same level of damage to cells as do older cells.

Analysis does show that the donor age may interfere with how well the cells of their body will change into iPSCs. It does appear that regenerated stem cells may be rejuvenated resulting in some aging symptoms reversed. These iPSCs do show functionality improvement when analyzed with regular body cells. These cells can be discerned into mature body cells with younger stem cell donor efficiency. An elderly patient?s stem cells could be made into other cells and ultimately used for variety of treatments.

There are questions to be answered such as will cells from older donors indicate increased damaging mutations which is not typically seen in younger stem cell donors? And will mutations continue through the transformation?

iPSC research is still in its infancy and questions still remain. Stem cell function would need to be assessed for proper testing and stability of genes. Also protocols would need to be established so that various lab results can be compared. However, the research highlights the enormous potential for treating the elderly with iPSCs.

To view the original scientific study click here: Age Is Relative Impact of Donor Age on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cell Functionality

lroot on May 11th, 2018

Gene Editing

Imagine being able to have your genes edited to eradicate errors and to greatly lengthen quality of life and life span. There are some people that are still active and independent at the age of 100 and live well beyond that. Generally those people also had long lived parents. What if the same genetic traits they inherited and more could be given to anyone?

Researchers at the Joint Institute of Metrology and Biology (JIMB) have recently developed MAGESTIC, a new CRISPR platform that is similar to a word processor which makes gene editing using barcodes. CRISPR which snips at DNA has been a clumsy tool making precision medicine or ?clipping? disease causing genetic mutations in patients virtually impossible. MAGESTIC or ?multiplexed accurate genome editing with short, trackable, integrated cellular barcodes? is being compared to a word processer that enables efficient search and replace functions for genetic material. This new platform was also able to produce an increase of sevenfold in survival of cells during the process of editing.

Previously, CRISPR required a very extensive understanding of how repair cuts with cells at a variety of sites across the genome could be controlled as needed. Because DNA strands are able to rejoin in very unpredictable ways, random mutations are likely to occur at the cut sites in the DNA of the cells. Additionally, many cells will not survive the process of editing at all. It has been extremely challenging building very accurate predictions of gene editing. Researchers want a more reliable way for programming CRISPR to be able to cut at targeted locations in the genome and then be able to direct cells for designed edits at the cut sites of the DNA. This can be accomplished by providing a donor DNA for the cell which the cell?s DNA repair machinery is able to use as a template for replacing the original sequence at the original cut site. However, the cell?s DNA repair system is complex and will not always behave predictably.

The cell searching for a DNA donor suitable for repairing a cut site is a huge challenge for the cell. The repair machinery of the DNA has to search through millions and even billions of DNA base pair sequences to be able to find the correct donor DNA. MAGESTIC has provided a significant advance in gene-editing technology by helping the cell search by artificially recruiting the DNA designed donor through a process called active donor recruitment which will recruit the donor DNA right to the cut site. This recruitment resulted in a sevenfold increase in the cell?s survival which was a change that resulted in increased effectiveness and efficiency.

The other feature that was different from CRISPR, was MAGESTIC?S new version of cellular barcode. Previously, researchers used small bits of circular DNA also known as plasmids to guide DNAs and to store barcodes for tracking designed mutations to each cell. The plasmids will multiply with cell growth and are inherited by both cells following cell division. With MAGESTIC the barcodes are integrated into chromosomes as opposed to single barcode per item correspondence which can vary widely in number resulting in 10 to 40 appearing in every cell.

Scientists do not know much about the function of the 0.l% of code that will vary between individuals in any population and is responsible for differences in susceptibility of disease. MAGESTIC helps to address the gap in understanding natural genetic variation through enabling individual genetic variant to be edited very precisely and compared to other genetic variants one by one. This results in help in uncovering which genetic differences will have cellular impact function. MAGESTIC will also edit all at one time in just a single test tube with every edit happening in any one of a million otherwise cells that are identical.

The researchers have reached a state where they have achieved sequencing the order of genome base pairs and are also able to change them. Additional research is needed to understand the edit sequencing.

To view the original scientific study click here: Multiplexed precision genome editing with trackable genomic barcodes in yeast

lroot on May 2nd, 2018

Fasting

A 24 hour fast can reverse age related decline of stem cell function in the gut according to a study conducted by biologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The study reveals that a metabolic switch occurs during a 24 hour fast. This switch results in a break down by cells of fatty acids rather than glucose. This change boosts gut stem cell regeneration in both old and young mice.

With age stem cells in the intestine start to lose their regeneration ability. This reduction makes it more difficult for people to recover from gastrointestinal conditions and infections since the stem cells in the intestine are the source for new cells. The biologists discovered they could boost stem cell regeneration using a molecule which activates the identical metabolic switch in the stem cells to induce burning fat rather than utilizing carbohydrates. This intervention could possibly be used for people who are recovering from a variety of conditions that effect the GI tract.

Fasting provides many positive effects in the intestines. It boosts regeneration of stem cells and can be useful in a variety of ailments which affect the intestines. Switching the intestinal stem cells to fatty acid oxidation significantly enhanced their function.

Omer H. Yilmaz, Assistant Professor of Biology at MIT, refers to stem cells in the intestinal wall as ?workhorses of the intestines?. And diet has a profound effect on the regeneration ability of tissue. It is known that a low calorie diet enhances longevity in humans. Intestinal stem cell function declines with aging which therefore interferes with the intestines ability to repair after damage. The researchers decided to focus on how a 24 hour fast might enhance the function of both old and young intestinal stem cells.

Once mice had fasted for 24 hours, the team removed stem cells from the intestine and transferred them to a culture dish. Their goal was to see if the cells would rise to
?mini intestines? which are known as organoids. Interestingly the team discovered that stem cells from the fasting mice resulted in double the regenerative capacity. Fasting had a profound effect on the intestinal crypts to make more organoids which are driven by stem cells. They observed this in both aged and young mice.

Additional studies which included sequencing RNA messenger of stem cells from the fasting mice showed fasting induced cells to change from the usual metabolism of carbohydrate burning to fatty acid metabolizing. The switch that occurs is through activation of transcription factors also referred to as PPARs. These turn on genes which are part of the metabolizing of fatty acids. The team discovered that by turning off this pathway, the fasting period would no longer boost regeneration. The team was also able to reproduce the positive effects of fasting to mimic the effects of PPARs by treating the mice with a molecule which mimics these effects. By activating just one metabolic pathway they were able to reverse some age phenotypes.

The next step is to study the process of the metabolic switch which provokes stem cells to strengthen their ability to regenerate. The team also plans to further research into how fasting might affect the ability of stem cells to regenerate other tissue types.

It may be possible to stimulate regeneration without having to fast for 24 hours which can be difficult for some people. Intermittent fasting involves eating during an 8 hour period each day and then fasting for 16 hours while drinking plenty of water. Some people do this every day. For those who have trouble going without food it can help a to eat a very low sugar diet including avoidance of high sugar fruits such as bananas, dates and dried fruit. All sweet foods and sweeteners tend to stimulate appetite and cause cravings.

To view the original scientific study click here: Fasting Activates Fatty Acid Oxidation to Enhance Intestinal Stem Cell Function during Homeostasis and Aging

lroot on April 23rd, 2018

Zero Calorie Sweeteners

In addition to common artificial sweeteners shown to change how the body processes fat and energy, a new study has revealed they can also cause health changes that are linked to obesity and diabetes. Because of the increased awareness of the health consequences associated with eating too much sugar, a dramatic increase in the consumption of zero calorie artificial sweeteners has occurred.

Artificial sweeteners are one of the most common food additives and are frequently consumed in diet and zero calorie beverages and other food products. The recent study is the largest examination to date which tracks biochemical changes in the body. Previous studies linked artificial sweeteners with negative health consequences; however the research had been mixed and raised questions about potential bias related to study sponsorship. The new study used an approach known as unbiased high throughout metabolomics after consumption of sugar and sugar substitutes. The tests were conducted in rats and cell cultures, and the researchers also looked at impacts on vascular health by studying how the substances affect the lining of blood vessels.

The research included feeding different groups of rats diets high in glucose or fructose, or aspartame or acesulfame (zero calorie artificial sweeteners). At the end of three weeks the researchers saw significant differences in the concentrations of fat, amino acids and biochemicals in blood samples. The results suggest that artificial sweeteners change how the body processes fat and gets its energy. They also found that acesulfame potassium appeared to accumulate in the blood with higher concentrations having a more harmful effect on the cells that line the blood vessels.

The researchers noted that in moderation the body can handle sugar. But when the system is overloaded over a long period the body machinery breaks down. They observed that replacing those sugars with the zero caloric artificial sweeteners led to negative changes in energy and fat metabolism.

The researchers note that the results do not provide a clear answer and further study is needed. But the question becomes, which is worse between sugar or artificial sweeteners? It is well known that high dietary consumption of sugar is related to negative health outcomes. The recent study suggests that the artificial sweeteners do too. If people chronically consume the foreign substances as with sugar also, the risk of health problems such as obesity and diabetes increases.

Experimental Biology 2018. “Why zero-calorie sweeteners can still lead to diabetes, obesity: Common artificial sweeteners shown to change how the body processes fat and energy.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 April 2018.